KETAHANAN PANGAN DAN TANGGUNG JAWAB NEGARA SAAT KONFLIK BERSENJATA: SEBUAH TINJAUAN HUKUM

Amalia Zuhra

Abstract


Krisis pangan global dalam beberapa tahun terakhir telah membawa lebih dari seratus juta orang ke dalam kemiskinan dan dapat menciptakan tragedi manusia. Hak atas makanan adalah hak asasi manusia dasar yang diakui dalam instrumen internasional, regional dan nasional. Unsur-unsur ketahanan pangan dan sistem pangan adalah Pemanfaatan Pangan (Food Utilization), Ketersediaan Pangan (Food Availability), dan Akses Pangan (Food Access). Pangan dan akses atas pangan sering kali dijadikan alat atau “senjata” dalam konflik bersenjata itu sendiri. Permasalahan dalam artikel ini ialah bagaimanakah pengaturan ketahanan pangan saat konflik bersenjata? Dan bagaimana tanggung jawab negara dalam pemenuhan hak atas pangan saat konflik bersenjata? Dalam artikel ini disimpulkan bahwa pada waktu konflik bersenjata, pangan, lahan pertanian dan objek-objek vital lain yang terkait dengan pangan dan produksi pangan dilindungi dan tidak boleh menjadi sasaran militer. Negara harus mengedepankan prinsip menghormati, melindungi, memenuhi dan memajukan upaya-upaya terkait pemenuhan hak atas pangan setiap warga negaranya dan mendahulukan kepentingan warga negara di atas kepentingan politik.

Kata kunci: ketahanan pangan, konflik bersenjata, hak atas pangan

 


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