Jun Justinar


Salah satu alasan mengapa pengungsi meninggalkan rumahnya ke tempat yang aman di luar negaranya adalah karena konflik bersenjata internal atau internasional. Konflik bersenjata berdampak pada sistem penjaga perlindungan pengungsi. Makalah ini membahas kapan keadaan perang dapat mengakhiri status pengungsi, bagaimana perlindungan pengungsi dalam konflik bersenjata dan bagaimana status pengungsi ditentukan pada sipil dievakuasi karena konflik bersenjata. Suatu keadaan perang tidak akan mengakhiri status pengungsi tetapi para pengungsi mengangkat senjata dan secara aktif terlibat dalam konflik bersenjata. Perlindungan pengungsi dalam konflik bersenjata berlipat ganda. Secara umum pengungsi akan mendapatkan perlindungan berdasarkan instrumen hak asasi manusia tetapi karena status sebagai pengungsi manfaatnya berdasarkan perlindungan hukum dalam Konvensi 1951 atau Protokol 1967 serta perlindungan sebagai korban perang berdasarkan Konvensi Jenewa 1949 dan Protokol Tambahan 1977. Pengungsi yang terlibat dan aktif dalam operasi militer kehilangan statusnya sebagai pengungsi. Dalam keadaan perang, status pengungsi ditentukan berdasarkan fakta di lapangan sehingga mereka disebut sebagai pengungsi prima facie karena pengungsi yang datang 'secara massal' sulit untuk menentukannya secara perorangan.


Kata kunci: konflik bersenjata, prima facie, status pengungsi


Full Text:


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 103| PDF views : 0



Bauloz, Céline, “The (Mis)Use of International Humanitarian Law under Article 15(c) of the Qualification Directive”, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2014 | doi 10.1163/9789004261594_012.

Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Executive Committee Conclusion No. 94.

Fripp, Eric, “Inclusion of Refugees from Armed Conflict: Combatants and Ex-combatants”, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2014 | doi 10.1163/9789004261594_007. 12 Agustus 2019.

Garrote-Sanchez, Daniel , “International Labor Mobility of Nationals: Experience and evidence for Afghanistan at macro level”, Background Paper to the World Bank Project on “Afghanistan: Managed International Labor Mobility as Contribution to Economic Development and Growth”..

Gratale, Joseph Michael, ”John Dumbrell, Rethinking the Vietnam War”, European Journal of American Studies , Reviews 2015-3, European Association for American Studies, 2015.

Handbook for Parliamentarians N° 27, 2017, A guide to international refugee protection and building state asylum systems, Inter-Parliamentary Union and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2017., dan 10 Agustus 2019.

IASC Gender Handbook, The International Legal Framework for Protection.

ICRC, “International humanitarian law and the challenges of contemporary armed conflicts”, Geneva, Switzerland 8-10 December 2015, Report No. 32IC/15/11,

IHL Database, “The Principle of Distinction between Civilians and Combatants”,, 3 september 2019.

Inter-Agency Standing Committee Task Force on Humanitarian Action and Human Rights 2004, Frequently Asked Questionson International Humanitarian, Human Rights and Refugee Law in the context of armed conflict.

J. Gold, Stephen, “Mental health and illness in Vietnamese refugees”, Cross-cultural Medicine-A Decade Later [Special Issue]. West Journal of Medicine, Vol. 157, No. 3, 1992.

Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia.

National Museum Australia, ”Vietnamese refugees boat arrival”, on-line

Okoth-Obbo, G., Thirty Years On: A Legal Review of the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee problems in Africa, Paper Presented at the Special OAU/UNHCR Meeting of Government.

Osborn’s Concise Law Dictionary, 10th edition, (London: Thomson Sweet & Maxwell, 2005).

Patrnogic, Jovan, “Introduction fo International Refugee Law”, Modul of The Refugee Courses at the International Institute of Humanitarian Law, San Remo, Italy, September 1996.

Rachel Brett and Eve Lester, “Refugee law and international humanitarian law: parallels, lessons and looking ahead”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 83, No. 843, Geneva: ICRC, 2001.

Rutinwa, Bonaventure , “Prima facie status and refugee protection”, New Issues In Refugee Research Working Paper No. 69 (Geneva: Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, tanpa tahun.

S. Goodwin Gill, Guy , The Refugee in International Law, New York: Oxford, 1998.

The Oxford English Dictionary (1st edition 1933, reprinted 1978, online version, available at: 4 september 2019.

the Convention on Certain Weapons.

UNHCR, “The refugee concept under international law”, Global Compact for Save, Orderly and Reguler Migration, New York: UNHCR, 2018.

UNHCR, Protecting Refugees: questions and answers, Geneva, 2002.

UNHCR, Figures at Glance,

UNHCR, The State of the World’s Refugees, (Geneva: UNHCR), p. 80.

UNHCR, The State of the World’s Refugees.

UNHCR, The State of the World’s Refugees: In Search of Solidarity, 2012.

UNHCR, Guidelines On International Protection No. 11: Prima Facie Recognition of Refugee Status, 24 Juni 2015.

UNHCR, Guidelines on International Protection No. 12: Claims for refugee status related to situations of armed conflict and violence under Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees and the regional refugee definitions, 2 December 2016, HCR/GIP/16/12, 5 Agustus 2019.

UNHCR, Guidance Note on Refugee Claims Relating to Victims of Organized Gangs, 31 March 2010, 12 Agustus 2019.

UNHCR, Guidelines on International Protection No. 7: HCR/GIP/06/07, 7 Agustus 2019.

UNHCR, Guidelines on International Protection No. 9: HCR/GIP/12/01, 30 Juli 2019.

UNHCR, Legal considerations on refugee protection for people fleeing conflict and famine affected countries, 5 April 2017, 25 Agustus 2019.

UNHCR, “The refugee concept under international law”, Global Compact for Save, Orderly and Reguler Migration, New York, 12-15 March 2018.

UNHCR, Status Determination and Protection Information Section, Geneva: Division of International Protection Services, 2006.

UNHCR's Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, (Re-edited version) Geneva 1992, paragraf 44, p. 13.

UNHCR, “The Cessation Clauses: Guidelines on their Application”, 26 April 1999, on-line tersedia di;, 27 September 2019.

UNHCR, “Guidelines on International Protection No. 3: Cessation of Refugee Status under Article 1C (5) dan (6)”, 10 February 2003, HCR/GIP/03/03, on-line tersedia di: 7 September 2019.

UNHCR, “Note on the Cancellation of Refugee Status”, para. 1(i)., 22 November 2004, on-line tersedia di: 24 September 2019.

UNHCR, “Guidelines on International Protection No. 5: Application of the Exclusion Clauses: Article 1F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees”, 4 September 2003, HCR/GIP/03/05, tersedia di:,

the 1969 OAU Refugee Convention.

Jackson, The Refugee Concept in Group Situations, (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 1999.

UNHCR, A Field Guide For NGOs: Protecting Refugees, United Nations Publications, 1999.

ExCom, “Civilian and Humanitarian Character of Asylum”, 8 October 2002, Conclusion No. 94 (LIII), available at:

United nations human rights, manual on human rights monitoring: applicable in human rights and humanitarian law framework,

UN General Assembly, Res. 2444 (XXIII)

UNHCR, “Article 1F Exclusion Guidelines”,

UNHCR, “Cessation Guidelines”, para 23.

UNHCR, “Guidelines on Exemption Procedures in respect of Cessation Declarations”, 5 September 2019.

Vanessa Holzer, “The Nexus to a Refugee Convention Ground in Armed Conflict”, 2015.

Vanessa Holzer, “Lack of Protection in the Country of Origin”.



  • There are currently no refbacks.