PERLINDUNGAN PENGUNGSI DI WILAYAH KONFLIK BERSENJATA DAN PENENTUAN STATUS PRIMA FACIE

Jun Justinar

Abstract


Salah satu alasan mengapa pengungsi meninggalkan rumahnya ke tempat yang aman di luar negaranya adalah karena konflik bersenjata internal atau internasional. Konflik bersenjata berdampak pada sistem penjaga perlindungan pengungsi. Makalah ini membahas kapan keadaan perang dapat mengakhiri status pengungsi, bagaimana perlindungan pengungsi dalam konflik bersenjata dan bagaimana status pengungsi ditentukan pada sipil dievakuasi karena konflik bersenjata. Suatu keadaan perang tidak akan mengakhiri status pengungsi tetapi para pengungsi mengangkat senjata dan secara aktif terlibat dalam konflik bersenjata. Perlindungan pengungsi dalam konflik bersenjata berlipat ganda. Secara umum pengungsi akan mendapatkan perlindungan berdasarkan instrumen hak asasi manusia tetapi karena status sebagai pengungsi manfaatnya berdasarkan perlindungan hukum dalam Konvensi 1951 atau Protokol 1967 serta perlindungan sebagai korban perang berdasarkan Konvensi Jenewa 1949 dan Protokol Tambahan 1977. Pengungsi yang terlibat dan aktif dalam operasi militer kehilangan statusnya sebagai pengungsi. Dalam keadaan perang, status pengungsi ditentukan berdasarkan fakta di lapangan sehingga mereka disebut sebagai pengungsi prima facie karena pengungsi yang datang 'secara massal' sulit untuk menentukannya secara perorangan.

 

Kata kunci: konflik bersenjata, prima facie, status pengungsi

 


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25105/teras-lrev.v1i1.5793

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