Bioremediasi Pencemar Mikroplastik di Ekosistim Perairan Menggunakan Bakteri Indigenous (Bioremediation of Microplastic Pollutant in Aquatic Ecosystem by Indigenous Bacteria)

Melati Ferianita Fachrul, Astri Rinanti

Abstract


Permasalahan lingkungan hidup yang menjadi isu dan belum banyak terpecahkan adalah kontaminasi pencemar mikroplastik yang bersifat persisten pada ekosistim perairan baik di sungai maupun di lautan. Pada umumnya sumber mikroplastik berasal dari air limbah rumah tangga dan industri. Mikroplastik adalah partikel plastik yang mempunyai diamater kurang dari 5 milimeter (mm) hingga 330 mikron (0,33 mm). Proses dekomposisi sampah plastik menjadi mikroplastik berlangsung sangat lama bahkan memerlukan waktu hingga ratusan tahun melalui berbagai proses fisik, kimiawi, maupun biologi. Di dalam partikel plastik terkandung bahan kimia berbahaya yang bersifat karsinogenik. Pencemar mikroplastik ini dapat masuk ke dalam rantai makanan pada berbagai tingkat trofik yang pada akhirnya berdampak pada lingkungan maupun kesehatan manusia. Demikian luas dampak dari pencemaran mikroplastik ini, maka diperlukan penelitian yang mendalam mengenai dekomposisi mikroplastik di perairan. Untuk mereduksi pencemar mikroplastik tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan pendekatan bioteknologi. Strategi untuk mengendalikan pencemaran mikroplastik dapat dilakukan dengan pengembangan teknologi remediasi dengan memanfaatkan potensi bakteri indigenous yang ditumbuhkan dalam lingkungan yang terkontrol.


Kata Kunci: bakteri indigenous, mikroplastik, pencemaran, perairan, remediasi


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25105/psnkb.v1i1.2910

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