Main Article Content
Outdoor space is important in a city because it accommodates pedestrian traffics, and other activities, which significantly contributes to urban livability and vitality. This is a comprehensive discussion on the review of literature relating to thermal comfort of the physiological and psychological phenomena of the outdoor space user in the urban areas. Many studies assess thermal comfort which are merely measured the physiological approach that represents a physiological thermoregulation mechanism when the human body responds to climatic conditions and various environmental factors include air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation. The importance of psychological aspects of an individual in considering the external environment needs to be observed as well. Contradiction between psychological behaviors and physiological thermal can be correlated within the theory of environmental behavioral learning.. The process of social learning, such as observation and education, is reflected in the psychological perception (fear of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustment (using umbrella or seeking shade). Therefore, psychological phenomenon and unique behaviors cannot be directly explained by physiological mechanism of thermoregulation. Various models on how to assess thermal comfort will be discussed in a general framework, in order to develop an accurate model. The model can be used as a criterion in determining functional, healthy, and comfortable design of outdoor.
Keywords: thermal comfort, physiology, psychology, behavioral, outdoor space
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