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Karangasem City is one of the heritage cities of Hindu Kingdom in Bali that has established its sovereignty ever since the seventeenth century. From the very beginning, Karangasem City played a significant role as the central government of Karangasem Kingdom. The spatial development of Karangasem City is remarkable; so that the spatial development process needs to be observed in order to get various factors that influence it. This research applied qualitative method covering field observations, interviews, and literature studies. Field observations were conducted to empirically explore the condition of Karangasem City, whereas the interviews and literature studies were conducted to explore the history and condition of Karangasem City. Based on the exploration results, the spatial development process of City-Kingdom of Karangasem is caused by two main factors, namely: (1) the residential development of upper community (puri, jero, and geria); and (2) the residential development of lower community (umah-banjar pakraman and rumah-kampung). It implies that the development of residential and the existence of community groups have become the determinants of spatial development of Karangasem City, ever since the initial formation until the present day.
Keywords: spatial development of the city; Karangasem City; residential; community groups
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