PENGARUH WORK LIFE POLICIES, WORK LIFE CONFLICT, JOB STRESS, DAN LONELINESS TERHADAP TURNOVER INTENTIONS PADA SEBUAH UNIVERSITAS SWASTA DI KOTA BATAM

Hielvita Ludiya

Abstract


Turnover intention has been an important issue in any organization; management has long recognized that low turnover intention of employees is helpful for consequently obtaining high organizational performance and avoiding the potential costs related to recruiting and training new employees. This study aims to examine the impact of work life policies, work life conflict, job stress dan loneliness on turnover intentions at a private university in Batam. A total of 101 completed responses were collected in the survey. The sampling method in this research is done with the approach of non-probability sampling with the convinience sampling. The data analysis technique used was the technique of multiple regression analyisis. The findings of this research showed that work life policies and job stress have negative and significant impact on turnover intentions. Work life conflict and loneliness have positive and significant impact on turnover intentions. The managerial implications of this research have several limitations such as taking only one university and some faculties of full time lecturer which become the object of research. Moreover, researcher was not able to spend a lot of time at the organisation for collecting the data from the respondents. This research suggest that further investigation needs to be expanded by taking some of the objects that are similar research at the education industry or other industries, and by increasing the sample size to improve the results of consistency.


Keywords


work life policies; work life conflict; job stress; loneliness and turnover intentions.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abubaker & Bagley. (2016). Work-Life Balance Policies In Jordanian Telecommunication Companies. Eurasian Journal of Business and Management, 4(3), 13-28.

Abushaikha, L. & Sheil, E.P. (2006). Labor Stress and Nursing Support: How do They Relate?. Journal of International Women's Studies, 7(4), 198-208.

Ahmed, A. & Ramzan, M. (2013). Effects of Job Stress on Employees Job Performance A Study on Banking Sector of Pakistan. IOSR Journal of Business and Management. e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668, 11(6), 61-68.

Ahuja, M.K., Chudoba, K.M., Kacmar, C.J., McKnight, D.H., & George, J.F. (2007). IT Road Warriors: Balancing Work Family Conflict, Job Autonomy, and Work Overload to Mitigate Turnover Intentions. MIS Quarterly, 31(1), 1-17.

Al-Homayan, A.M., Shamsudin, F.M., Subramaniam, C., Islam, R. (2013). The Moderating Effects of Organizational Support on The Relationship between Job Stress and Nurses’ Performance in Public Sector Hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Journal Advances in Environmental Biology, 7(9), 2606-2617.

Amstad, F.T., Meier, L.L., Fasel, U., Elfering, A. & Semmer, N.K. (2011). A Meta-Analysis of Work-Family Conflict and Various Outcomes With a Special Emphasis on Cross-Domain Versus Matching-Domain Relations. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(2), 151-169.

Applebaum, D., Fowler, S., Fiedler, N., Osinubi, O., & Robson, M. (2010). The Impact of Environmental Factors on Nursing Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention. Journal of Nursing Administration, 40(7-8), 323-328.

Arshadi, N. & Damiri, H. (2013). The Relationship of Job Stress with Turnover Intention and Job Performance: Moderating Role of OBSE. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 706-710.

Aytac, S. (2015). Loneliness as Mediator between Job Satisfaction and Intention to Leave: A Study on Prison Staff in Turkey. Arabian J Bus Manag Review, ISSN: 2223-5833, 5(6), 1-4.

Azzahra, F. & Tiarapuspa (2016) Pengaruh Emotional Intelligence Terhadap Job Performance yang Dimediasi oleh Job Satisfaction. Jurnal Manajemen Trisakti e-journal , 3(1),49-64.

Bashir, S. & Ramay, M.I. (2008). Determinants of Organizational Commitment: A Study of Information Technology Professionals In Pakistan. Journal of Behavioural and Applied Management, 9(2), 226-238.

Beauregard, T.A., & Henry, L.C. (2009). Making the Link between Work-Life Balance Practices and Organizational Performance. Human Resource Management Review, 19(1), 9-22.

Bemana, S. (2013). The Relationship among Job Stress on Job Satisfaction in Municipality Personnel in Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 22(2), 233-238.

Blomme, R.J., Rheede, A.V., & Tromp, D.M. (2010). Work-Family Conflict as a Cause for Turnover Intentions in The Hospitality Industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(4), 269-285.

Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A Unified Model of Turnover from Organizations, Human Relation, 35(2), 135-153.

Boon, C., Hartog, D. N. D, Boselie, P., & Paauwe, J. (2011). The Relationship Between Perceptions of HR Practices and Employee Outcomes: Examining the Role of Personorganisation and Person-Job Fit. The international Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(1), 138-162.

Bothma, C.F. & Roodt, G. (2013). The Validation of Turnover Intention Scale. SA Journal of Human Resources Management, 11(1), 1-12.

Butts, M.M., Casper, W.J., & Yang, T.S. (2013). How Important Are Work-Family Support Policies? A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Their Effects on Employee Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(1), 1-25.

Calisir, F., Gumussoy, C.A., Iskin, I. (2011), Factors Affecting Intention to Quit Among IT Professionals in Turkey. Personnel Review, 40(4), 514-533.

Chan, S.H. & Qiu, H.H. (2011). Loneliness, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment of Migrant Workers: Empirical Evidence from China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(5), 1109-1127.

Chaudhry, A.A., Malik, M. I. & Ahmad I. (2011). Examining the Relationship of Work-Life Conflict and Employee Performance (A Case from NADRA Pakistan). International Journal of Business and Management, ISSN: 1833-3850, E-ISSN: 1833-8119, 6(10), 170-177.

Chen, Y.M., Chen, H.S., Tsai, C.Y., & Lo, L.T. (2007). Role Stress and Job Satisfaction for Nurse Specialists. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 59(5), 497-509.

Cho, J.E., Choi, H.C. & Lee, W.J. (2014). An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Role Stressors, Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention in the Airline Industry. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(9), 1023-1043.

Crouter, A.C. & Booth, A. (2009). Work Life Policies. Washington DC: The Urban Institute Press.

Culbertson, S.S., Huffman, A.H., & Anderson, A.R. (2010). Leader-Member Exchange and Work-Family Interactions: The Mediating Role of Self-Reported Challenge and Hindrance-Related Stress. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 144(1), 15-36.

Deery, M. (2008). Talent Management, Work-Life Balance and Retention Strategies. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(7), 792-806.

Demirbas, B., & Hasit, G. (2016). Loneliness at Workplace and Its Effect on the Intention to Leave: An Application on the Academicians. Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, 16(1), 137-158.

Ertosun, O.G. & Erdil, O. (2012). The Effects of Loneliness on Employees Commitment and Intention to Leave. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 41, 469-476.

Fong, Y.L., & Mahfar, M. (2013). Relationship between Occupational Stress and Turnover Intention among Employees in a Furniture Manufacturing Company in Selangor. Jurnal Teknologi (Social Sciences), eISSN: 2180-3722, ISSN: 0127-9696, 64(1), 33-39.

Forsyth, S., & Polzer-Debruyne, A. (2007). The Organizational Pay-Offs for Perceived Work-Life Balance Support. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 45(1), 113-123.

Gamage, P.N. & Herath, H. M. A. D. K. (2013). Job Related Factors and Intention to Stay of IT Proffesional in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Social & Interdisciplinary Research. USSIR, ISSN: 2277-3630, 2(7), 136-145.

Ghayyur, M. & Jamal, W. (2012). Work-Family Conflicts: A Case of Employees Turnover Intention. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 2(3), 168-174.

Ghozali, I. (2010). Aplikasi Analisis Multivariate Dengan Program SPSS. Semarang: Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Giovanni, T.M., Kojo, C., dan Lengkong,V.P.K. (2015). Pengaruh Konflik Peran, Konflik Kerja dan Stres Kerja terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Pada PT Air Manado. Jurnal EMBA,ISSN: 2303-11, 3(3), 90-98.

Gronlund, A. (2007). More Control, Less Conflict? Job Demand-Control, Gender and Work-Family Conflict.Gender, Work and Organization, 14(5), 476-497.

Grzywacz, J. G., Arcury, T. A., Marı´n, A., Carrillo, L., Burke, B., Coates, M. L., & Quandt, S. A., (2007). Work-Family Conflict: Experiences and Health Implications Among Immigrant Latinos. Journal of AppliedPsychology, 92(4), 1119-1130.

Handoko, T. H. (2008). Manajemen Personalia dan Sumber Daya Manusia (Edisi 2). Yogyakarta: Penerbit BPFE.

Heydarian, M. & Abhar, S. (2011). Factors Contributing to Employees’ Turnover Intention. SEGi Review, 4(2), 31-41.

Higgins, C., Duxbury, L., & Lyons, S. (2007). Reducing work-life conflict: What works? What doesn’t? Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.

Javed, M., Arsalan Khan, M., Yasir, M., Aamir, S. & Ahmed, K. (2014). Effect of Role Conflict, Work Life Balance and Job Stress on Turnover Intention: Evidence from Pakistan. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, ISSN: 2090-4304, 4(3), 125-133.

Jimenez, B.M., Mayo, M., Vergel, A. I. S., Geurts, S., Munoz, A. R. & Garrosa, E. (2009). Effects of Work-Family Conflict on Employee’s Wellbeing: The moderating Role of Recovery Experiences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. IE Business School Working Paper, 8, 119-136.

Judge, T. A., Ilies, R., & Scott, B.A. (2006). Work-family Conflict and Emotions: Effects at work and at Home. Personnel Psychology, 59(4), 779-814.

Kaymaz, K., Eroglu, U., & Sayılar, Y. (2014). Effect of Loneliness at Work on the Employees’ Intention to Leave. “İş, Güç” Industrial Relations and Human Resources Journal, 16(1), 38-53.

Lam, L.W. & Lau, D.C. (2012). Feeling Lonely at Work: Investigating The Consequences of Unsatisfactory Workplace Relationships. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(20), 4265-4282.

Lewandowski Jr.G.W., Mattingly, B.A. & Pedreiro, A. (2014). Under Pressure: The Effects of Stress on Positive and Negative Relationship Behaviors. The Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN: 0022-4545, 154, 463-473.

Liu, L.J. & Guo, Q. (2007). Loneliness and Health Related Quality of the Life for the Empry Nest Elderly in the Rural Area of a Mountainous County in China. Quality of Life Research, 16(8), 1275-1280.

Malik, M.I., Saif, M.I., Gomez, S.F., Noor Khan& Hussian, S. (2010). Balancing Work and Family Through Social Support Amoung Working Womens in Pakistan. Afirican Journal of Business Management,ISSN: 1993-8233, 4(13), 2864-2870.

Manurung, M. T. & Ratnawati, I. (2012). Analisis Pengaruh Stres Kerja dan Kepuasan Kerja terhadap Turnover Intentions Karyawan. Diponegoro Journal of Management, 1(2). 145-157.

Mathis, R.L., Jackson, J. H., Valentine, S.R. & Meglich, P. (2016). Human Resources Management(17thEd). Boston, MA. United State of America: Cengage Learning.

Michael, O., Court, D. & Petal. (2009). Job stress and Organizational Commitment among Mentoring Coordinators. International Journal of Education Management, 23(3), 266-288.

Monday, R.W. (2008). Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. Jilid 2, Edisi 10. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga.

Moore, V. (2007). Work‐Life Balance: Contrasting Managers and Workers in an MNC. Employee Relations, 29(4), 385-399.

Mujtaba, B. G. (2008). Coaching and Performance Management: Developing and Inspiring Leaders, Davie, Florida, USA USA: ILEAD Academy Publications.

Mujtaba, B.G. & McCartney, T. (2010). Managing Workplace Stress and Conflict amid Change, 2nd edition. ILEAD Academy Publications; Davie, Florida, United States.

Muse. L., Harris, S.G., Giles, W.F., & Field, H.S. (2008). Work-Life Benefits and Positive Organizational Behaviour: Is There Convection? Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 29, 171-192.

Naidu, E.C. (2016). A Case Study on Human Resource Management with Special Reference to Icici Prudential Life Insurance. IRACST-International Journal of Commerce, Business and Management (IJCBM), ISSN: 2319-2828, 5(6), 73-90.

Noor, Ayesha. (2009). Examining Organizational Citizenship Behavior as The Outcome of Organizational Commitment: A Study of Universities Teachers of Pakistan. Proceedings 2nd CBRC, Lahore, Pakistan.

Noor, S., & Maad, N. (2008). Examining the Relationship between Work-Life Conflict, Stress and Turnover Intentions Among Marketing Executives in Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 3(11), 93-102.

Omar, M. K. (2010). Work Status Congruence, Work-Related Attitudes, and Satisfaction towards Work-Life Balance. International Review of Business Research Papers, 6(1), 145-156.

Ongori, H. (2007). A Review of The Literature on Employee Turnover. African Journal of Business Management, ISSN: 1993-8233, 049-054.

Padmanabhan, M. & Kumar, S.S. (2016). Work- Life Balance and Work-Life Conflict on Career Advancement of Women Professionals in Information and Communication Technology Sector, Bengaluru, India. International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah, ISSN: 2350-0530(O), ISSN: 2394-3629(P), 4(6), 119-130.

Paille, P. (2011). Stressful Work, Citizenship Behaviour and Intention to Leave the Organization in a High Turnover Environment: Examining the Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction. Journal of Management Research. ISSN: 1941-899X, 3(1), 1-14.

Paré, G., Tremblay, M., & Lalonde, P. (2001). Workforce Retention: What Do IT Employees Really Want? Proceedings of the 2001 ACM SIGCPR Conference on Computer PersonnelResearch,1-10, DOI 10.1145/371209.371208.

Pietersen, C. & Oni, O.A. (2014). Employee Turnover in a Local Government Department. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, E-ISSN: 2039-2117, ISSN: 2039-9340, 5(2), 141-153.

Qureshi, M. I. Iftikhar, M., Abbas, S.G., Hasan, U., Khalid Khan & Zaman, K. (2013). Relationship Between Job Stress, Workload, Environment and Employees Turnover Intention: What We Know, What Should We Know. World Applied Sciences Journal, ISSN: 1818-4952, 23(6), 764-770.

Rahim. 2011. Managing Conflict in Organizations (Fourth Edition). New Jersey: New Transaction.

Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2008). Perilaku Organisasi, Buku 1, Cetakan Ke- 12. Jakarta: Penerbit Salemba Empat.

Saeed, R., Lodhi, R.N., Ahmed, K., Afzal, N., Mahmood, Z. & Ahmed, M. (2013). Work-Life Balance and Stress with the Turnover Rate of the Employees. World Applied Sciences Journal, ISSN: 1818-4952, 26, (6), 834-839.

Septiari, N.K. dan Ardana, I.K. (2016). Pengaruh Job Insecurity dan Job Stress terhadap Turnover Intention Karyawan Pada Hotel Asana Agung Putera Bali.E- Jurnal Unud, ISSN: 2303-8912, 5(10), 6429-6456.

Shahzad, K., Rehman, U., Shad, I., Gul, A., & Amnulah Khan, M. (2011). Work-Life Policies and Job Stress as Determinants of Turnover Intentions of Customer Service Representatives in Pakistan. European Journal of Social Sciences, 19(3), 403-411.

Shahzad, K., Hayat, K., Abbas, M. & Bashir, S. (2011). Antecedents of Turnover and Absenteeism: Evidence From Public Sector Institutions of Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(9), 108-120.

Sheraz, A. & Wajid, M. (2016). Antecedents of Job Stress and its impact on employee’s Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions. International Journal of Learning & Development, ISSN: 2164-4063, 4(2), 205-226.

Sheraz, A., Wajid, M., Sajid, M. & Qureshi, W.H. (2014). Antecedents of Job Stress and Its Impact on Employee’s Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions. International Journal of Learning & Development, ISSN 2164-4063, 4(2), 204-226.

Siddiqui, A.A. & Jamil, R.A. (2015). Antecedents of Employees’ Turnover Intentions: Evidence from Private Educational Institutions. American Journal of Economics and Business Administratio, 7(4), 160-165.

Sosik, J. J., & Godshalk, V. M. (2000). Leadership Styles, Mentoring Functions Received, and Job-Related Stress: A Conceptual Model and Preliminary Study. Journal of OrganizationalBehaviour, 21(4), 365-390.

Sugiyono. 2012. Metode Penelitian Administrasi Dilengkapi dengan Metode R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Suifan, T.S., Abdallah, A.B. & Diab, H. (2016). The Influence of Work Life Balance on Turnover Intention in Private Hospitals: The Mediating Role of Work Life Conflict. European Journal of Business and Management, ISSN: 2222-1905, 8(20), 126-139.

Wahyuni, A.S., Zaika, Y., dan Anwar, R. (2014). Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Turnover Intention (Keinginan Berpindah) Karyawan Pada Perusahan Jasa Konstruksi. Jurnal Rekayasa Sipil, ISSN: 1978-5658, 8(2) 89-95.

Wibowo, A. E. (2012). Aplikasi Praktis SPSS Dalam Penelitian. (Edisi. 2). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Gava Media.

Wickramasinghe, V. (2010). Impact of Time Demands of Work on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 3(3), 246-256.

Wright, S.L., Burt, C.D.B., & Strongman, K.T. (2006). Loneliness in the Workplace: Construct Definition and Scale Development. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 35(2), 59-68.

Zhang, G., &Lee, G. (2010). The Moderation Effects of Perceptions Organizational Politics on the Relationship between Work Stress and Turnover Intention: An Empirical Study about Civilian in Skeleton Government of China. iBusiness, 2, 268-273.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25105/jmpj.v9i2.2233

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Lisensi Creative Commons

Jurnal manajemen dan pemasaran jasa  Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-NonKomersial 4.0 Internasional.